The U.S. has long been hailed as a global superpower, and conversations often revolve around the rapid economic growth of emerging nations like China and India. But what precisely determines the health of an economy? Amidst a myriad of macroeconomic indicators, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) stands out as one of the most comprehensive and universally applicable benchmarks.

GDP = Consumption + Investment + Government Spending + Net Exports

Just as different countries have unique historical developments, their economic structures also differ. For example, the United States has robust domestic consumption, constituting nearly 70% of its GDP, while in Taiwan, consumption represents 50%, and in China, it's only 36%. To delve deeper into global economic dynamics, let's breakdown the GDP of a few countries, and look for further insights into a nation's economic development.


1. United States - Consumption Totaling $12 Trillion, Surpassing China's Overall Value

Consumption accounts for almost 70% of the U.S. GDP, with other components each contributing less than 20%. The sheer magnitude of domestic consumption in the U.S. surpasses the GDP of the second-largest economy, China. During key shopping seasons like Black Friday and Christmas, U.S. retail sales serve as crucial indicators, because the nation's consumption patterns significantly influence global economic demand. Due to its strong consumption, the U.S. maintains a long-term trade deficit, providing resilience against the impacts of global trade fluctuations.

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2. China - Elevated Investment, Overcapacity Challenges, and Strategic Structural Adjustments

China's investment constitutes nearly half of its GDP, making it the country with the highest investment share globally. In its early development phases, China pursued extensive infrastructure investment to drive domestic manufacturing growth. However, as investment exceeded consumption, there was a surge in debt levels and overcapacity. In recent years, the Chinese government has shifted its focus to structural adjustments, aiming to reduce investment and boost consumption. This shift in policy is also why we can’t see a prominent economic recovery after COVID-19 in China.

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